Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Tree Symbolism Essay Example

Tree Symbolism Essay Example Tree Symbolism Paper Tree Symbolism Paper People may often ask themselves why they should learn about tree symbolism. Many people would probably say the meaning of trees does not interest them. But knowing what tree symbolism means goes beyond knowing the healing properties of a tree, its elemental correspondences, or its mythological associations. Tree symbolism is a way of classifying, identifying, and organizing the array of energetic knowledge they contain and incorporating this array in peoples daily lives. Human minds are beginning to touch this understanding: To know something is also to Join with it. To Join in an understanding of life causes association with it. When we start to understand tree symbolism, we can then further our perspective into four basic concepts: cultural/historic perspectives of trees, biological functions of trees, energetic resonance of trees, and environment of trees. The beech, birch, willow, and cedar are all used symbolically throughout history to enhance beliefs, offer concrete examples, and connect meaning. The beech tree is native to North America, Europe, and Asia. These trees grow slowly and usually reach a height of 120 feet, with branches expanding to 50 feet ide. Beech trees produce edible nuts and are commonly used as timber for floors, furniture, cabinets, barrels, and toys. The trees are known to symbolize tolerance, past knowledge, and softening criticism. The beech is known for tolerance; for instance, the tree can withstand different soil conditions and habitats. Past knowledge is another symbol; beech trees hold the knowledge of the power of the written word. History reveals that the first European literature was written on beech bark. Beech is the tree of the discovery of lost wisdom, and the individual must learn ot to discount the knowledge and teachings of the past. This type of tree reminds us to soften over-criticalness due to individuals written and spoken communication to accomplish tasks more effectively. The birch tree symbolizes new beginning and renewal. This tree represents the symbol of new beginnings; therefore, the wood is tough, heavy, and straight grained, making it suitable for handles and toys and good for turning. Traditionally, babies cradles were made of birch wood, drawing on the earlier symbolism of new beginnings. The birch trees ability to adapt toa variety of conditions and repopulate quickly after a fire made it a sacred symbol of renewal. Birch trees provided food, medicine, textiles for clothing, shoes, and material for building a shelter. Willow tree meanings include magic, healing, inner vision, and dreams. Native Americans across the world rely on their main source of medical treatments from the tree. This use is because the willow contained acetylsalicylic acid, also known as a form of aspirin. However, its known to people that if they make a wand out of the illow bark and put it underneath their pillow, they will be able to remember their inner vision and dreams at night better. In the 19th century (and earlier), women who dwell upon the death of a loved one showed photographs or drawings including one or more mourners in dark dresses bent over a tombstone with a willow tree a symbol of death, tears, mourning, and reflection. Perhaps this is the origin of the Another tree, called cedar, is found throughout the world and symbolizes healing, cleansing, and protection. All the cedar trees have a fragrance that is leansing and protecting. Cedar is said to be used in rituals and ceremonies to prepare a person or area. Native Americans used it for purification purposes. A staff made from cedar wood has the energy of protection, and it can open opportunities to heal imbalances of emotional distress. Cedar is a tree whose spirit and principle will strengthen and enhance any inner potentials of an individual. This is tied to strong healing energies that cleanse the body, especially at night while the individual sleeps. Cedar helps individuals to balance their emotional and mental odies and can stimulate dream activity, which brings inspiration and calm. In conclusion, throughout history trees have been powerful symbols to many people of different cultures. Therefore, trees of life represent the knowledge of good and evil and invite people to absorb their essences. Trees symbolize life and growth by reaching down to the ground and up to the sky at the same time. The deep- rooted meaning of trees is apparent in common metaphors such as the Tree of Life and our ancestral heritage depicted in family trees.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

7 tips to not letting work take over your life

7 tips to not letting work take over your life In this age of leaning in and working whatever hours it takes to get ahead, it can be increasingly easy to forget to take time for yourself. Doing anything but work can actually seem like laziness or self-indulgence- especially when it looks like everyone else is still working furiously while you’ve taken off for the day. However, burnout is real. If you’re not operating at full capacity because you’re mentally and physically exhausted, your work and personal life will suffer. The key is to find a  good balance between your hard work and your outside life. Here are a few strategies on how to do just that.1. Keep one day meeting-free.Lots of companies establish one day a week as â€Å"meeting-free,† where no one is allowed to schedule any kind of mandatory group gathering. If your company doesn’t do this, suggest it to your manager. Setting aside one work day that’s just for you to actually work will do wonders for your productivity. Youâ₠¬â„¢ll get more done during the day and take home less work (and stress) at night.2. Work from home if possible.If telecommuting is an option for you at your job, take advantage of it. If it isn’t yet, have a conversation with your boss. Even one day or half day a week can help keep you grounded and give you that little bit of extra space that keeps you centered.3. Protect your time away from the office.If you do have to take work home, make sure you set strict time limits for yourself, so it doesn’t eat up all of your out-of-office time. Triage the important stuff. Respond only to the most critical emails, then leave the rest for when you’re back at your desk. And unless it’s truly an emergency, try to make it a policy not to respond to work emails at all over the weekends. Your weekend time is your own.4. Fit in exercise.Build this into your work day, with something as simple as a half-hour walk during your lunch break. If that isn’t possible, bu ild an hour or two a week into your weekly routine. Exercise will keep you healthy, sharp, young, and full of endorphins. You can’t really afford not to find the time, so go ahead and make sure you do- your body and your brain will thank you. Taking care of your body takes care of so much else.5. Make family a priority.The people you love and who love you in your life aren’t expendable, and your job should know that. If emergencies come up, show up. Make time to be there for the people that you love as a rule, not as an exception.6. Take vacation.Seriously. Vacation and personal time exist for a reason. Take every day you are allowed. You’re supposed to use these days, and you (and your boss) will be glad you did. Your work and attitude will definitely improve after taking a break.7. Schedule blank time.Instead of scheduling yourself to the gills, from your alarm going off in the morning until bedtime, make sure you block off time in your schedule when you donâ €™t have anything to do- not even family obligations or doctors appointments. Let your brain really an truly relax,  and it will stay sharp and creative.You might not be able to give yourself a full half-hour or hour every day, but you can try. Even just twenty minutes to sit quietly and meditate or take a walk can make all the difference in your attitude and your health.

Friday, February 14, 2020

The influence of great opinionated powers on international law Essay

The influence of great opinionated powers on international law - Essay Example Precisely, it has the capability to mould the jurisdiction according to its desire and enforce it to prevent any operation globally that it cannot stop without any legal procedure. Basic function of international law is to bring peace and calm around the glob. In the primitive ages when the world was not much civilized, there used to be constant wars usually for land acquisition, to strengthen an empire or an urge to conquer a vast area in order to leave a distinctive mark on the fabric of history. In those days it was easier to manage the municipal criminological affairs as compared to today's world, because the states had powers to handle the local problems. But unlike today, there lacked a system to manage peace among nations or states because the reason could be an intense sense of self esteem and great height of confidence on armies. Hence, the rulers preferred to ruin the weaker states and hold them under their empire. In this way they used to kill the peace and bust the basic human rights. As the time passed and with the development of human intellect, church began to mediate the international disputes. Particularly in the era when nations had a fashion to self govern themselves, church was the supreme power to handle international and to some extent local problems. This practice was also undertaken in ancient civilizations such as Greeks and Egyptian civilizations. Modern international law is often affirmed as a product of modern European civilization as well as Egyptian Pharaohs entered into treaties of alliance, peace extraditions, and the treatment of envoys with neighboring kings as early as the 14th century. But they could not make an adjustment with European law by all means. As a result the purpose of peace remained disputed. As Becker (2006, p.149) says, "International law is the product of special civilization of the Europe and forms a highly artificial system of which principles were not understood by civilizations differently civilized" Concept Of Sovereignty Further consolidations brought the international law to a phase where the idea of sovereignty came into existence. It was considered that peace was the major ingredient for the survival and progress. So in 15th century a new trend evolved, and that was, representatives of all the nations were gathered under one roof and every issue was resolved on the basis of treaties and debates rather than wars or by the use of powers. So in other words the trend of domestic law was reshaped into a broad spectrum or in modern sense international law. In the 14th and 15th centuries there was a modification that rather than self governing the states used to send their representative that reflects the problems of state in front of the sovereign authority and then a common treaty was passed in consent with all the representatives. Their motive used to be to avoid war and bring more peace. During 14th and 15th centuries the practice of establishing resident missions started in Italy. By this time the practice of arguing in front of adversary's council or assembly had apparently become obsolete. The envoy was expected to be in constant touch with receiving sovereign and to join or oppose intrigues in order to safeguard the interests of his master. Murty (1989, p4) demonstrates, "during the following two

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Internal Environment of Tesco Literature review

Internal Environment of Tesco - Literature review Example Quite understandably, there is a bright side to the picture and as well as a darker side which goes hand in hand, however, when talked about the corporate world, markets and industries, the darker side is more dark to offset the brightness of so-called bright side of the picture. The golden days for the business were when they could operate with monopolies and lesser competition. Consumer awareness was virtually zero and thus their bargaining power was extremely low (Senge, pp. 189-196, 1991). Â  However, with this revolution of information technology, the marketplace has changed into something, which no one could have imagined in his or her wildest dreams, some decades back. Statistics reveal that out of the Fortune 100 companies of 1900, only four of those corporations have been surviving and the rest is history. Furthermore, only General Electric (GE) is the only company, which still exists out of the top 12 companies that appeared on the Dow Jones Index in 1900. Quite clearly, the marketplace is now a brutal and ruthless place, which has no place for companies that fail to adapt, change, innovate, learn, and compete. In fact, the marketplace today is a bloody red ocean since all that companies do today, is make their competitors lose so that they can win. Â  For most companies, the pie is not growing or expanding and the only way to increase your share of the pie is to decrease the share of their competitors. More importantly, the companies that have failed to adopt proactive, calculated, informed approaches and have tried to remain mere spectators, the environmental forces have not forgiven them for the same and they are history. That explains why Nokia, which started it business as lumber company that made equipment needed to cut down the forests diversified, adapted, changed, and innovated to become the biggest seller of mobile phones in the world.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Living Within Constraints :: essays research papers

Living Within Constraints Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply In the early ages people were hunters, or predators; they had to survive by killing other species. Although predators are supposed to be the strongest in the food chain, people were vulnerable because they had to depend on the same species below them. Our senses were not developed as well either; hearing, smelling, eye sight were and still are not as good as of those below us. We can’t kill with our teeth or nails, like some alligators could. So after 4 ice ages, only 25,000 people were left. That’s when they realized that they had to change their loosing strategies and that’s when they came up with Subsistence Agriculture. People domesticated animals, plants, and according to the number of the population today, we are doing real well. The world population grew slowly over much of the historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated. The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. Now the world population is increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. Except for parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the world. Per capita production has now slowed and appears to be declining. In line with recent studies, we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty, and over 1 billion in ‘utter poverty’ live with hunger. Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. Less than one half of the world’s land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing. Nearly all of the world’s productive land, flat and with water, is already exploited. Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture. Water Shortages: Pressures from growing population have strained water resources in many areas of the world. Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world’s population, now compete for water. If we improve conservation of water, it would enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields. A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Manifest Destiny

â€Å"Manifest Destiny† is a phrase to describe the future of the United States that considerably impacted U.S. foreign policy in the 1840s and 1850s. It was coined by John O’Sullivan in the editorial in Democratic Review in 1845 where he wrote about â€Å"†manifest destiny to overspread the continent† (Wikipedia, 2006). This phrase described the expansionist foreign policy doctrine that helped America reach its present boundaries. The underlying idea of the doctrine was that the United States with its democratic system was in many ways superior to other nations. Therefore, it was morally obliged to expand in order to bring democracy and progress to new lands around. The virtue of the American nation, its superior abilities at development, and the mission to develop other neighboring parts of the continent formed the ideological basis for Manifest Destiny. At the same time, this ideology served a number of practical implications that were relevant to the US foreign policy in the 1840s and 1850s. As such, it underlay the policy of continentalism that warranted the expansion on the American continent aiming to make America stretch â€Å"from sea to shining sea†. For example, it played a role in the Oregon dispute with Great Britain in which President Polk elected in 1844 at first agreed to divide the state at the 49th parallel, but then a campaign began, claiming all Oregon to belong to the United States. In the relations with Mexico, the theme of Manifest Destiny was even more prominent. The decision of the Republic of Texas in 1836 to separate from Mexico and request entry to the United States was taken by many as evidence that the Untied States is indeed destined to â€Å"assemble† all neighboring territories. Although the Mexican-American War that started in 1846 was not successful in bringing all of Mexico under American rule, it nevertheless added California and New Mexico. For two decades, America remained concentrated on fulfilling its Manifest Destiny – annexing various territories and bringing them as states into the union. Reference Wikipedia. Manifest Destiny. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny (accessed August 22, 2006) Manifest destiny Manifest is a view that gives evidence on the history of America whose boundaries changed and created a nation. Manifest destiny has no chronological periods since it is a philosophy that was and still exists. This phrase attempts to explain the territorial expansions of America and its claim to new territories. Cause of expansion The rallying cry for expansion was publicized and argued throughout the nation. The doctrine was absorbed and this was a start of the expansion under the influence of Editor John L. Oa sullivan. (Jones & Donald 1997) In 1818, Andrew Jackson who was the 7th president of the United States led military forces during the Florida crisis punishing the seminal Indians and captured several cities. The reasoning and moral conservations of most Americans about their leader Jackson, made their conscience to push to expansion of the American territory. . http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm Another cause was that the people the Deep South exercised their right in capturing fertile land. This was because Americans had been installed with the belief that they could own any land which they wanted. The manifest destiny term had a meaning that US destiny included imperialistic expansion and a want and need to explore new lands and borders. (Jones & Donald 1997) There was the idea that America should have been the world power and this become strong after the Spanish American war. The united stated had a strong belief that it would capture the boundaries to North America. (Shenk, 2004) (Jones & Donald 1997) Method of expansion With the need for fertile land Americans moved to Florida and in the Deep South, the planter class consequently took land and started setting and planting. This was an arrogant move into the Florida territories since they did not seek political approval or permission. The idea is as old as America and the philosophy went across the Atlantic to colonist and ended in the Plymouth Rock with the pilgrims. This philosophy also spread during the Great Awakening with fire and brimstone preachers. In the spread of manifest destiny ideas Roosevelt, Harrison and Captain Mahan were expansionists who advocated for the creation of America but these ideas were opposed by Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie and Mark Twain. http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm As new territories were formed, the expansion also included extending the institution of slavery since thus was a central issue of America as a missiona. John Quincy Adams orchestrated the 1818 treaty, which resolved standing boundaries of the US and UK to the west of Rocky Mountains with joint occupation of the Oregon country. He also purchased Florida from Spain extending the border to the Pacific Ocean. (Jarnow, 2005) The U.S government wanted to expand in to the west and this would mean the legal processes of purchasing of Native America land in treaties. The expansion to the west was a success since the policy which was formulated by Henry Knox had the provision for such an expansion. (Jones & Donald 1997) In the 1896 election, republicans recaptured the white house for 16 years and this promoted overseas expansion on the North American continent. This occurred as a result of the Guano islands act, Spanish American war and treaty of Berlin among others. The United States acquired Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines Island as colonies rather than as states. (Jarnow, 2005 ). http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm Cost of expansion As a result of the expansion there were several wars such as the war on Mexico in 1846. The aggressive act with the war caused the American civil war. The Spanish America war caused legislators to annex all Spanish territories. John Quincy Adams gave a warning through the Monroe doctrine which he formulated. This doctrine warned against the European colonization of the western hemisphere which includes London, England and the United Kingdom. Peaceful and violent attempts were witnessed in the American Revolution with a target of including Canada in the US. http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm Result of expansion The war resulted in to a win of the southwestern United States. With the conquering of new lands and borders, moral, cultural, social and economic differences begun to show themselves among people, states and countries involved. The expansion through fine and brimstones preacher led to building of the first national road. (Michael, 1997) Further more with the expansion from 1815 to 1860; the United States had expanded to the Pacific Ocean and serves as continental borders in the United States today. With the Anglo American convention of 1818, thousands of Americans moved over the Oregon Trail. The British rejected a proposal in which John Tyler wanted to have forty nine parallel boundaries in the region. The British called for a boundary line further south along the Columbia River. There were different opinions that found advocated of Manifest destiny calling for the annexation of Oregon country. The democrats were for the idea of annexation of all Oregon at the time of presidential elections of James K. Polk. Polk who was a presidential candidate offered to divide the territory to 49 parallel boundaries. Meanwhile the dispute over the division of the region was finally settled with the Oregon treaty of 1846.( shenk,2004)(Richard 1991) . http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm When the sovereign state in the republic of Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836, and joined the united stated as a new state. Annexation of all Mexico meant extending the United States citizenship to Mexicans. The Mexican cession saw the addition of the Alta California and Nuevo Mexico territories to the United States. The American war of independence was a civil war that involved the kingdom of Great Britain and North American colonies. (McCartney 1992) (Salzman, 1986) European wars led to American Revolution and a continental army. The west ward expansion created a 4000 mile border between the United States and Canada which also servers as the most peaceful boundary in the world. (Jarnow, 2005), (Richard, 1991), (Feldman, 2004) The Pacific Northwest was an expansion due to an American John Jacob Astron who opened a trading post named Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River. The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of 828,000 squire miles of French territory by the United States of America. This purchase included 15 U.S states and 2 Canadian provinces Oklahoma Panhandle and south western portions of Kansas and Louisiana were still claimed by Spain and there were complains that it was unconstitutional. As a result Jefferson purchased Louisiana since France and Spain wanted to have power to block American trade access to the port of New Orleans. (Michael, 1997) (Feldman, 2004) The expansion and settlement in the western territories gave freedom to limitless land. With the spirit of manifest destiny Americans settled, planted and did farming activities in the Indian land. Manifest destiny was the reason for territorial expansion and settlement in vast tracks of land that were sparsely populated. Manifest destiny created American history and is also responsible for its independence and expansion. (Craven, 2003) Conclusion The events that occurred during the late and early 18th centuries in United States brought division in American politics. This was especially due to the manifest destiny and territorial expansion. (McCartney 1992) A great number of people were in supported these moves but politician as well as the strict constructionists did not support the ideas. In their view they understood that the constitution did not allow or give the right to acquire land and expand boundaries as per the plans and powers in governments. (Michael, 1997) (Richard 1991) Slavery was also a major issue that influenced presidential elections at that time. Following further expansion of boundaries, there was imbalance in the number of slave state and Free State representatives in congress. It was a major challenge on the senators and representatives due to emerging accusations of conspiracies by congress on Free State members. Charles Sumner thought that the southerners wanted more land to have slavery in the territories and hence become slave states. (Richard 1991) The war between Mexico and Great Britain caused fears for those who were against it. James Polk enticed Mexicans to attack and with this he use it to claim that he had defended the U.S (Shenk, 2004). The issues on slavery conflict, the unexpected election of Polk and the Mexican war brought American politics into great and weighty issues of concern. Reference: Craven W., American art: History and Culture in America, 2003. Feldman R. T. The Mexican-American War: Twenty-First Century Books, 2004. Jarnow J., Moriarty J.T. Manifest Destiny: A primary Source, History of Americas territorial expansion in the 19th century. Rosen Publishing Group. 2005 Jones H, Donald A. R.., Prologue to Manifest Destiny: Anglo-American Relations in the 1840S, Unites States: Rowman & Littlefield 1997. Lubragge M. T.1994 Manifest Destiny:1/6 The Philosophy That Created A Nation     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Retrieved from http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm on Thursday,   Ã‚   April 10, 2008 McCartney J.T., Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American Political Thought Temple University Press, 1992. Michael A. M. Slavery and the American West: The eclipse of Manifest Destiny. UNC press, 1997. Richard W. â€Å"It’s Your Misfortune and None of My Own†; A History Of The American West. University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Salzman J.,American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography: Cambridge university press, 1986. Shenk, W. R. North American Foreign Missions, 1810-1914: Theology, Theory, and Policy: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004. Manifest Destiny â€Å"Manifest Destiny† is a phrase to describe the future of the United States that considerably impacted U.S. foreign policy in the 1840s and 1850s. It was coined by John O’Sullivan in the editorial in Democratic Review in 1845 where he wrote about â€Å"†manifest destiny to overspread the continent† (Wikipedia, 2006). This phrase described the expansionist foreign policy doctrine that helped America reach its present boundaries. The underlying idea of the doctrine was that the United States with its democratic system was in many ways superior to other nations. Therefore, it was morally obliged to expand in order to bring democracy and progress to new lands around. The virtue of the American nation, its superior abilities at development, and the mission to develop other neighboring parts of the continent formed the ideological basis for Manifest Destiny. At the same time, this ideology served a number of practical implications that were relevant to the US foreign policy in the 1840s and 1850s. As such, it underlay the policy of continentalism that warranted the expansion on the American continent aiming to make America stretch â€Å"from sea to shining sea†. For example, it played a role in the Oregon dispute with Great Britain in which President Polk elected in 1844 at first agreed to divide the state at the 49th parallel, but then a campaign began, claiming all Oregon to belong to the United States. In the relations with Mexico, the theme of Manifest Destiny was even more prominent. The decision of the Republic of Texas in 1836 to separate from Mexico and request entry to the United States was taken by many as evidence that the Untied States is indeed destined to â€Å"assemble† all neighboring territories. Although the Mexican-American War that started in 1846 was not successful in bringing all of Mexico under American rule, it nevertheless added California and New Mexico. For two decades, America remained concentrated on fulfilling its Manifest Destiny – annexing various territories and bringing them as states into the union. Reference Wikipedia. Manifest Destiny. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny (accessed August 22, 2006)

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Convert Decimal Degrees into Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

When looking at maps and surveys, youll sometimes  find degrees given in decimal degrees (121.135 degrees) instead of the more common degrees, minutes, and seconds (121 degrees, 8 minutes, and 6 seconds). Its easy to convert from a decimal to the sexagesimal system if, for example, you need to combine data from maps that are calculated in two different systems. Or maybe youve done some math with some data in decimal degrees format and need to convert back to degrees, minutes, and seconds to plot the coordinates on a map. When you use GPS systems, for example when geocaching, you should be able to switch between the different coordinate systems on your device.   Heres How to Do the Conversion There are online calculators, but its not that tough to do the calculation from decimal degrees to degrees, minutes, and seconds by hand when needed; you start by breaking down your existing figure.   The whole units of degrees will remain the same (e.g., if your figure is 121.135 degrees longitude, start with 121 degrees).Multiply the decimal portion of the figure by 60 (e.g., .135 * 60 8.1).The whole number becomes the minutes (8).Take the remaining decimal and multiply it by 60  (e.g., .1 * 60 6).The resulting number becomes the seconds (6 seconds). Seconds can remain as a decimal if needed.Take your three sets of numbers and put them together, (e.g., 121 °86 longitude would be equivalent to 121.135 degrees longitude). FYI After you have degrees, minutes, and seconds, its often easier to find your location on most maps (especially topographic maps).Though there are 360 degrees in a circle, each degree is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute is divided into 60 seconds.A degree is 70 miles (113 km), a minute 1.2 miles (1.9 km), and a second is .02 miles, or 106 feet (32  m).  Use a negative sign before figures in the Southern Hemisphere and in the Western Hemisphere.